Q2/2021 - Russland

Botschaft von Präsident Putin an das russischen Jugend-IGF, 6. April 2021

Der russische Präsident Wladimir Putin hat erstmals eine Botschaft an das russische Jugend-IGF (Internet Governance Forum) gesandt. In der Botschaft würdigt Putin das russische IGF und die UN „Roadmap for Digital Cooperation“ als wichtige Bausteine für die Gestaltung des globalen Internet-Governance-Ecosystems. Putin spricht insbesondere talentierte Jugendliche an, die sich einmischen sollen bei der Ausarbeitung von universellen und fairen Regeln für eine globale Internet Governance: „Young people, with their fresh and unorthodox vision of problems, as well as their creative energy are a crucial creative force in this sphere. Proof of this is the story of the world famous IT companies, social networks and messengers that were initiated by young engineers and software specialists, including Russian citizens and our compatriots. Therefore, we must attract young professionals to tackling current topics related to the formulation of universal, fair rules of internet governance, the protection of information security and the identification of priority spheres of IT development“.[1]

Vor- und Nachbereitung des Gipfeltreffens mit US-Präsident Joe Biden, Juni 2021

Bei dem Gipfeltreffen zwischen dem amerikanischen Präsident Joe Biden und dem russischen Präsidenten Wladimir Putin am 16. Juni 2021 in Genf standen Cybersicherheitsfragen im Zentrum der Diskussion. Präsident Biden hatte vor dem Gipfeltreffen gefordert, Russland müsse gegen von seinem Territorium operierende kriminelle Gruppen vorgehen. Putin hatte seinerseits den USA vorgeworfen, eigene Cyberangriffe zu fahren und einem Cybersicherheitsdialog mit Russland auszuweichen. Im Ergebnis des Gipfels wurde die Aufnahme von bilateralen Konsultationen auf niederer Ebene vereinbart. Wenige Tage nach dem Gipfeltreffen verschwand die von Russland aus operierende Gruppe REvil, die für Cyberangriffe mit Erpressungssoftware auf amerikanische Einrichtungen verantwortlich sein soll, aus dem Netz.

  • Im Vorfeld des russisch-amerikanischen Gipfeltreffens gab Präsident Putin dem amerikanischen Fernsehsender NBC ein Interview, bei dem er auch zum Thema Cybersicherheit befragt wurde. Auf die Frage von NBC-Korrespondent Keir Simmons, ob Russland hinter den Angriffen auf SolarWinds oder hinter den Erpressungsattacken gegen die amerikanische Erdölpipeline Colonial und einen Fleischverarbeitungskonzern stehe, antwortete Putin mit der Gegenfrage, wo Simmons Beweise für eine Verstrickung russischer Behörden in diese Cyberangriffe habe: „But where is evidence that this was indeed done? I will tell you that this person has said that, that person has said this. But where is the evidence? Where is proof? When there are charges without evidence, I can tell you that you can take your complaint to the International League of Sexual Reform (SIC). This is a conversation that has no subject. Put something on the table so that we can look and respond. But there isn't anything like that“. Putin machte seinerseits die USA für Cyberangriffe verantwortlich. Er zeigte sich besorgt, dass die NATO „Cyber“ als einen militärischen Operationsraum beschreibt. Putin argumentiert, dass wenn die NATO dies mache, Russland es auch tun müsse. Damit würde eine ungute Entwicklung in Richtung einer Militarisierung des Cyberspace eingeleitet. Man solle von den Abkommen zwischen der Sowjetunion und den USA über die nukleare Abrüstung aus den 1970er und 1980er Jahre lernen und ein Cyber-Wettrüsten vermeiden. Die Forderung der USA, sich nicht in die Angelegenheiten anderer Staaten einzumischen, sei heuchlerisch. Es seien die USA, die sich in die Angelegenheiten von Dutzenden von Staaten einmische. [2]
  • Nach dem Gipfeltreffen bestätigte Putin bei einer Pressekonferenz am 16. Juni 2021 in Genf die vereinbarte Aufnahme von bilateralen Konsultationen zu Cybersicherheit. Er verneinte, dass die russische Regierung hinter Cyberattacken auf westliche Einrichtungen stehe und zitierte amerikanische Quellen, wonach die USA an der Spitze der Länder stehe, die Cyberangriffe auf andere Länder ausführen. Putin sagte, dass Russland in den letzten beiden Jahren insgesamt zwölf Anfragen von US-amerikanischen Stellen im Zusammenhang mit Cyberattacken bekommen habe. Die russischen Behörden hätten auf alle Anfragen ausführlich reagiert. Umgekehrt seien aber 45 Anfragen von Russland an die amerikanische Regierung nicht beantwortet worden. Es sei Zeit auf Konspirationstheorien zu verzichten und sich zusammenzusetzen, um gemeinsam gegen Cyberkriminelle vorzugehen. Russland sei dazu bereit. [3]


Mehr zum Thema
  1. [1] Greetings to first Youth Russian Internet Governance Forum: Vladimir Putin sent his greetings to the participants and guests of the first Youth Russian Internet Governance Forum (Youth RIGF), Moskau, 6. April 2021: “The opening of this forum was a much needed initiative. It is aimed at bringing together talented and energetic young people of our country and many other states, those who would like to make a personal contribution to the development of IT and can harmoniously complement the expert work underway within the framework of the Russian Internet Governance Forum and the UN Roadmap for Digital Cooperation. I would like to point out that the internet is an integral part of everyday social life and provides a basis for the development of traditional and new economic sectors. Young people, with their fresh and unorthodox vision of problems, as well as their creative energy are a crucial creative force in this sphere. Proof of this is the story of the world famous IT companies, social networks and messengers that were initiated by young engineers and software specialists, including Russian citizens and our compatriots. Therefore, we must attract young professionals to tackling current topics related to the formulation of universal, fair rules of internet governance, the protection of information security and the identification of priority spheres of IT development. I have no doubt that your forum will be able to promote the achievement of this goal.” In: http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/65333
  2. [2] Vladimir Putin answered questions from NBC correspondent Keir Simmons. Moskau, 11. Juni 2021: Vladimir Putin: NATO said that it considers cyberspace an area of combat. And it prepares and even conducts exercises. What stops us from doing that? If you do that, we will do the same thing. But we don't want that, just like we don't want space militarised, in the same manner we don't want cyberspace militarised. And we have suggested on many occasions, agreeing on mutual work in the cybersecurity area in this area. But your government refuses to. Keir Simmons: It isn’t, I mean. I saw your proposal from September, from just in September. Isn’t what you're proposing? That if you can come to an agreement over hacking and election interference, then you'll call off the hacking and the election interference if America agrees not to comment on your elections and your political opponents? Vladimir Putin: What we count on is that nobody should interfere in domestic internal affairs of other countries, neither the US in ours nor we in the USA's political processes or any other nations. All nations of the world should be given an opportunity to develop calmly. Even if there are crisis situations they have to be resolved by the people domestically, without any influence or interference from the outside. I don't think that this call by the US administration, today's administration is worth anything. It appears to me that the US government will still continue to interfere in the political processes in other countries. I don't think that this process can be stopped, because it has gained a lot of momentum. However, as far as joint work in cyberspace for the prevention of some unacceptable actions on the part of cyber criminals, that is definitely something that can be agreed upon. And it is our great hope that we will be able to establish this process with our US partners. Keir Simmons: If you were in America, what would you fear might happen next? The lights being switched off the way they were in western Ukraine in 2015? Vladimir Putin: You mean if I were in America, what I would be afraid of? Is that the question? Keir Simmons: What should Americans worry about? What might happen next if there's no agreement on cyber? Vladimir Putin: You know, this is just like space militarisation. This is a very dangerous area. At some point, in order to achieve something in the nuclear area in terms of confrontation in the area of nuclear weapons, the USSR and the United States did agree to contain this particular arms race. But cyberspace is a very sensitive area. As of today, a great deal of human endeavours rely upon digital technologies, including the functioning of government. And of course interference in those processes can cause a lot of damage and a lot of losses. And everybody understands that. And I am repeating for the third time: Let's sit down together and agree on joint work on how to achieve security in this area. That is all. What's bad about it? I don't even understand. I'm not asking you. I'm not trying to put you on the spot. But for me as an ordinary citizen, it would not be clear and understandable, why is it that your government refuses to do it? Accusations keep coming, including up to interference, involvement in a cyberattack against some kind of a meat processing plant. But our proposal to start negotiations in this area are being turned down. This is some kind of nonsense, but that's exactly what's been happening. I repeat one more time. It is my hope that we will be able to start engaging in positive work in this area. In terms of what's to be afraid of, why is it that we suggest agreeing on something? Because what people can be afraid of in America, are worried about in America, the very same thing can be a danger to us. The US is a high-tech country. NATO has declared cyberspace an area of combat. That means they are planning something. They are preparing something. So obviously this cannot but worry us. Keir Simmons: Do you fear that American intelligence is deep inside Russian systems and has the ability to do you a lot of damage in cyber? Vladimir Putin: I'm not afraid, but I bear in mind that it is a possibility.“ In: http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/65861
  3. [3] Wladimir Putin, News conference following Russia-US talks, Genf, 16. Juni 2021: „As for cyber security, we have agreed to start consultations on this issue. I consider this very important. Now about the commitments each side must make. I would like to tell you about things that are generally known, but not to the public at large. American sources – I am simply afraid to mix up the names of organisations (Mr Peskov will give them to you later) – have said that most cyberattacks in the world come from US cyberspace. Canada is second. It is followed by two Latin American countries and then the United Kingdom. As you can see, Russia is not on the list of these countries from whose cyberspace the most cyberattacks originate. This is the first point. Now the second point. In 2020 we received 10 inquiries from the United States about cyberattacks on US facilities – as our colleagues say – from Russian cyberspace. Two more requests were made this year. Our colleagues received exhaustive responses to all of them, both in 2020 and this year. In turn, Russia sent 45 inquiries to the relevant US agency last year and 35 inquiries in the first half of this year. We have not yet received a single response. This shows that we have a lot to work on. The question of who, on what scale and in what area must make commitments should be resolved during negotiations. We have agreed to start such consultations. We believe that cyber security is extremely important in the world in general, for the United States in particular, and to the same extent for Russia. For example, we are aware of the cyberattacks on the pipeline company in the United States. We are also aware of the fact that the company had to pay 5 million to the cybercriminals. According to my information, a portion of the money has been returned from the e-wallets. What do Russia’s public authorities have to do with this? We face the same threats. For example, there was an attack on the public healthcare system of a large region in the Russian Federation. Of course, we see where the attacks are coming from, and we see that these activities are coordinated from US cyberspace. I do not think that the United States, official US authorities, are interested in this kind of manipulation. What we need to do is discard all the conspiracy theories, sit down at the expert level and start working in the interests of the United States and the Russian Federation. In principle, we have agreed to this, and Russia is willing to do so.“ In: http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/65870