Q3/2019 - Französische G7-Präsidentschaft

Gipfeltreffen, Biarritz, 24. – 26. August 2019

Der G7-Gipfel in Biarritz wurde dominiert von den aktuellen politischen Krisen und Konflikten im Mittleren Osten, dem Handelskrieg und vom Klimawandel. Internet-relevante Themen waren dennoch allgegenwärtig.

G7 Biarritz Strategy for an Open, Free and Secure Digital Transformation

Mit der „G7 Biarritz Strategy for an Open, Free and Secure Digital Transformation“[1] wurde ein weiteres wichtiges Dokument auf G7-Ebene verabschiedet, das für die Entwicklung einer globalen Politik der G7 zum Thema Internet relevant ist. Das Dokument beschreibt Grundlinien, wie mit der hybriden Natur des Internet – einerseits die gigantischen Möglichkeiten für wirtschaftliches Wachstum, neue Arbeitsplätze, mehr Demokratie und Menschenrechte, andererseits die Gefahren für Missbrauch der Sozialen Netze für die Verbreitung von Hass und Lügen, Cyberterror, Cyberkriminalität, Sicherheitsrisiken bei neuen Technologien, Unwägbarkeiten im Bereich Künstlicher Intelligenz – umgegangen werden soll.

Ursprünglich hatte die französische Präsidentschaft geplant, auch eine gesonderte G7-Erklärung zur Rolle der Massenmedien und der Sozialen Netzwerke im Kampf gegen den Terrorismus zu verabschieden. Frankreich hatte gemeinsam mit Neuseeland nach dem Attentat in der Moschee von Christchurch den sogenannten „Christchurch Call“ verabschiedet, der Regierungen und Online-Plattformen aufruft, aktiv gegen den Missbrauch des Internet für terroristische Aktionen vorzugehen. Frankreich wollte den „Christchurch Call“ ausbauen zu einer „G7 Multistakeholder Internet Charta“. Das wurde jedoch vom amerikanischen Präsidenten Donald Trump abgelehnt. Die verabschiedete „G7 Biarritz Strategie“ bezieht sich dennoch auf den „Christchurch Call“ ebenso wie auf das beim G20 Gipfel im Juni 2019 verabschiedete „G20 Osaka Leaders' Statement on Preventing Exploitation of the Internet for Terrorism and Violent Extremism Conducive to Terrorism.“ Die US-Regierung erklärte, dass sie grundsätzlich die Ideen des französischen Vorschlags teilt, jedoch aus verfassungsrechtlichen Gründen (First Amendment) keine verbindlichen Verpflichtungen eingehen kann.

Digital Trade, AI & 5G

Ein wichtiges Thema war die Frage der Cybersicherheit, insbesondere beim Ausbau neuer Netze wie 5G. Die G7 riefen auf, die gesamte Zulieferkette im IT-Bereich einem ständigen Sicherheitscheck zu unterziehen. Die G7 unterstützten das unter der japanischen G20-Präsidentschaft (Osaka, Juni 2019) verabschiedete Konzept „Data Free Flow with Trust“ (DFFT), dass u.a. Gegenstand der Verhandlungen im Rahmen der WTO ist.

Eine besondere Rolle spielte das zukünftige Vorgehen der G7-Staaten beim Thema „Künstliche Intelligenz“ (AI). AI ist zu einem Schwerpunktthema der G7 geworden. Bereits die italienischen und kanadischen G7-Präsidentschaften hatten 2017 und 2018 dem Thema gehöriges Gewicht verliehen. In ihrer Erklärung verweisen die G7 auf den hybriden Charakter von AI. Einerseits eröffneten sich gigantische Möglichkeiten zur Erweiterung von Demokratie und Wohlstand; andererseits würden die Gefahren des den Missbrauchs neuer Technologien wachsen, der die Menschheit an den Rand einer Katastrophe bringen kann. Gewürdigt wurde die von Kanada und Frankreich initiierte „Global Partnership for AI“. Begrüßt wurden die von der OECD verabschiedeten AI-Empfehlungen vom Mai 2019, die bereits die G20-Staaten im Juni 2019 in Osaka unterstützt hatten.

G7 Digital Transformation in Africa

Eine wichtige Rolle spielte die Einbindung der Entwicklungsländer in die globale G7-Digitalisierungsstrategie. Das gilt insbesondere für Afrika. Nach Ansicht der G7-Führer in Biarritz könnte die „digitale Transformation“ von Afrika zu einem „Game-Changer“ für den ganzen Kontinent werden. Die G7 unterstützen die von der Afrikanischen Union (AU) verkündete „AU Agenda 2063“. 1963 wurden die meisten ehemaligen afrikanischen Kolonien als selbständige Staaten in die UNO aufgenommen. Die AU Strategie zielt auf den 100. Jahrestag dieses Ereignisses. Die G7-Staaten wollen durch ein Bündel verschiedener Maßnahmen Afrika behilflich sein, nicht nur die „digitale Lücke“ zu schließen, sondern durch kreative Digitalisierungsstrategien neue Dynamik in die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung Afrikas und die Schaffung neuer Jobs, insbesondere für Frauen, bringen. Als Instrumente werden u.a. genannt die „EU-AU Digital Economy Task Force“, der „Digital Economy Moonshot for Africa“ und die „Smart Africa Initiative“. Versprochen wird ein stärkeres Engagement des privaten Sektors beim Aufbau der Infrastruktur und der Entwicklung von E-Commerce. Erwähnt wird dabei auch das Thema Sicherheit beim Aufbau neuer Netzwerke, vor allem im 5G-Bereich. Diese Erklärungen sind nicht zuletzt vor dem Hintergrund des verstärkten afrikanischen Engagements Chinas (Belt & Road Initiative/BRI, digitale Seidenstraße, Huawei, Alibaba) zu sehen[2].

Mehr zum Thema
Q3/2019G7
  1. [1] G7 Biarritz Strategy for an Open, Free and Secure Digital Transformation, Biarritz, 26. August 2019: „1. We, the Leaders of the G7, Australia, Chile, India and South Africa, meeting in Biarritz on 26 August 2019, together with the Secretary General of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, have discussed the best strategies to promote an open, free and secure digital transformation, and reiterated our determination to protect it from current challenges. 2. We recognize that the Internet, and related technologies used in the digital transformation, are key enablers of our societies and economic development. It has brought new ways of empowering all individuals and communities, and provided access to an unprecedented body of information and knowledge. However, there are negative effects threatening social cohesion and democratic values. Online abuse, in its various forms, especially targets certain groups, particularly women, minorities and vulnerable users, and restricts the full enjoyment of many human rights. 3. We are committed to the rights to freedom of opinion and expression. We believe access to information from diverse perspectives is essential to democracy. While coming from different legal and political traditions, we appreciate the value of thorough and constructive exchange of views with relevant stakeholders. We were informed by the French Presidency on the progress made on the establishment of an International Partnership for Information and Democracy and on the results of the Global Conference for Media Freedom held in London, on 10-11 July, aimed at mobilizing a consensus behind the protection of journalists. 4. We are determined to work collaboratively to reinforce our democracies against illicit and malign behavior and foreign hostile interference by state and non-state actors. We will continue to bolster our capabilities to address hybrid threats, including in the areas of cybersecurity, strategic communications and counter-intelligence. We take note of the ongoing work of the G7 Rapid Response Mechanism. 5. We note the continued momentum provided, inter alia, by the Christchurch Call and the G20 Osaka Leaders' Statement on Preventing Exploitation of the Internet for Terrorism and Violent Extremism Conducive to Terrorism, as we work with international partners towards our mutual objectives for an open, free and secure internet. We reiterate that positive narratives to counter terrorist propaganda will continue to be an important element of this effort. We were informed about the views regarding an Internet multi-stakeholder charter which aims at realizing the positive effects of the Internet while addressing illegal online content and activity and while respecting our democratic values and the rule of law. 6. We recognize that cross-border flow of data, information, ideas and knowledge generates higher productivity, greater innovation, and improved sustainable development, while it can raise issues related to privacy, data protection, intellectual property rights, and security. Data free flow with trust will harness the opportunities of the digital transformation. In this respect, it is necessary that legal frameworks, both domestic and international, should be respected. We will cooperate to encourage interoperability of different frameworks, and we affirm the role of data for development. We agree on the need to address the threats posed by security vulnerabilities in 5G networks and supply chains. 7. Artificial intelligence (AI) technologies are bringing about radical transformation of our societies and economies. They can open an unprecedented cycle of innovation and growth. AI can provide innovative solutions to advance progress toward achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development as well as significant benefits to help address some of our most pressing challenges. Leaders recognize that AI is transforming societies, the global economy and the future of work and has the potential to improve the welfare and the well-being of people, but may have disparate effects regarding the economy and privacy and data protection, and implications for democracy. 8. We recognize the Italian and Canadian presidencies' work on the future of artificial intelligence. We acknowledge the need to support and guide the responsible development of AI, that is grounded in human rights, inclusion, diversity, innovation and economic growth. We will continue to explore ways to advance our work on AI to understand and share, on a regular basis, multidisciplinary research results on artificial intelligence issues and best practices, as well as bringing together international artificial intelligence initiatives. We acknowledge in that regard the Global Partnership on AI, an initiative proposed by Canada and France, as well as other related initiatives. We welcome the willingness of the OECD to support our work to advance AI, in line with its Recommendation on Artificial Intelligence adopted in May 2019. http://www.g7.utoronto.ca/summit/2019biarritz/biarritz-strategy-for-digital-transformation.html
  2. [2] G7-Digital Transformation in Africa, Biarritz, 26. August, 2019: „ 1. Digital transformation could be a game-changer for the African continent. It is an opportunity to boost economic growth and industrialisation, alleviate poverty and improve people's lives. The use of digital technology and services will contribute to the African Union Agenda 2063.2. Digital technology can drive innovation, economic growth and job creation in many key sectors of the economy, and allows for greater interconnection of African markets with one another and with the rest of the world. It can enhance both market and financial access for all, particularly in marginalised areas neglected by traditional financial institutions. Promoting digitalization in Africa will maximize our impact in sectors such as health, energy, transport, agriculture, education and facilitating access to basic social services, consistent with our broader good governance and development policies and programmes. 3. Accessible, secure and reliable Internet is critical to closing the digital gap and reducing inequalities. It can greatly contribute to enhancing human capital and providing new opportunities for young people in Africa. Women and girls, especially those living in poverty and in rural communities, are most likely to be more affected by the digital divide. We welcome the G20 #eSkills4Girls initiative that promotes digital skills for women and girls and which will contribute to supporting their participation in the digital economy. 4. We collectively endeavour to provide strong support to bridge the digital divide and promote digital transformation in Africa in line with our national commitments. We note in that respect the recommendations from the EU-African Union Digital Economy Task Force, the Digital Economy Moonshot for Africa and Smart Africa initiatives. Our common strategy for Africa will be based on the following objectives: a. Enabling the necessary digital infrastructure in order to reduce the digital gap and inequality, including in isolated countries and regions that are excluded or underserved, and b. encouraging the transport and logistics activities that serve e- commerce and e-government on a regional basis. Fostering fair competition and transparency in building digital infrastructures is key to this end. This needs to be complemented by the right investment climate in order to attract private sector resources. C. Developing digital literacy and skills, particularly in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), in order to equip young people, especially young women and girls, with the skills necessary to take advantage of the growth and prosperity promised by the digital economy, whilst protecting against online risks and harms, and promoting inclusion, notably for women. d. Fostering digital transformation for growth, entrepreneurship, job creation, and private-sector empowerment, particularly digital start-ups, SMEs and innovative community initiatives, by using digital technologies to provide support. e. Expanding new solutions offered by digitalization across other sectors, such as health, agriculture, energy, e-commerce, electronic payment and governance. f. Creating enabling environments to allow national stakeholders to manage digital risks in coordination with the existing work of international and African organizations. g. Sharing best practices between G7 and African partners, including experiences about creating legislative and regulatory frameworks, notably regarding data protection. 5. Improving the enabling environment and encouraging private sector investment and funds is a central part of this process. In this regard, we underline the need to boost private sector financing, including by using blended capital and other risk mitigation instruments. We encourage countries to adopt sound and predictable tax and regulatory frameworks in order to build stability and trust for investors in the digital sector in Africa. 6. We also commit to addressing telecommunications security – including 5G security – and to ensuring that the digital transformation benefits all and promotes good governance, environmental sustainability, equitable economic transformation and job creation. 7. In the context of the digitalization of Africa, we recognise the need to address the specific situation of fragile regions, such as the Sahel, Horn of Africa and Lake Chad regions. Siehe: http://www.g7.utoronto.ca/summit/2019biarritz/digital-transformation.html