Q3/2021 - Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD)

Quad-Gipfeltreffen, 24. September 2021, Washington

Internet Governance und die Entwicklung von IT-Technologie standen auf der Tagesordnung des ersten Gipfeltreffens der Staats- und Regierungschefs des „Quadrilateral Security Dialogue“ (QUAD). QUAD ist ein 2007 gegründeter loser Kooperationsverbund zwischen Indien, Australien, Japan und den USA. Im März 2021 war der Verbund von US-Präsident Biden neu belebt worden als eine Art Gegenblock zu den Aktivitäten Chinas im Indo-Pazifischen Raum. [1] Bei dem Gipfeltreffen in Washington vereinbarten die vier QUAD-Staaten eine engere Kooperation im Bereich von Cybersicherheit und beim Aufbau einer 5G-Infrastruktur. Sie bekannten sich zu einem „open, inclusive, private-sector-led, multi-stakeholder, and consensus-based approach“ bei der Entwicklung von Internet-basierten Technologien, insbesondere in den Standardisierungsgremien.

  • Die vier Regierungen verabschiedeten ein Dokument unter dem Titel „Quad Principles on Technology Design, Development, Governance, and Use“[2]. Das Dokument basiert auf dem Bekenntnis zu „demokratischen Werten und dem Respekt vor den Menschenrechten“. Die „Quad-Prinzipien“ basieren auf drei Säulen: Universelle Werte, Vertrauen und Wettbewerb:
    • Universelle Werte: Technologieentwicklung soll in einem Multistakeholder Prozess erfolgen und dabei grundlegende und universelle Menschenrechte wie Meinungsäußerungsfreiheit und Schutz der Privatsphäre berücksichtigen und nicht missbraucht werden für Terrorismus, Desinformation, autoritäre Überwachung und Unterdrückung. [3]
    • Vertrauen, Integrität und Widerstandsfähigkeit: Technologieentwicklung sollte auf den Grundsätzen der Offenheit und Interoperabilität basieren. Erwartet wird von der Industrie die Bereitstellung sicherer Hard- und Softwaree (security by design). Zurückgewiesen wird ein illegaler Transfer oder Diebstahl von Technologie. Lieferketten zwischen alliierten Partnern sollen transparent und vertrauenswürdig sein. [4]
    • Wettbewerb und internationale Zusammenarbeit: Technologieentwicklung sollt in einem fairen und offenen Wettbewerb um die beste technologische Lösung stattfinden. Die QUAD-Staaten bekräftigen, dass die Entwicklung von Internet Standards auf einem „industry-led, consensus-based, multistakeholder approach“ basieren sollte. [5]
Mehr zum Thema
  1. [1] Joint Statement from Quad Leaders, 24. September 2021: „We have established cooperation on critical and emerging technologies, to ensure the way in which technology is designed, developed, governed, and used is shaped by our shared values and respect for universal human rights. In partnership with industry, we are advancing the deployment of secure, open, and transparent 5G and beyond-5G networks, and working with a range of partners to foster innovation and promote trustworthy vendors and approaches such as Open-RAN. Acknowledging the role of governments in fostering an enabling environment for 5G diversification, we will work together to facilitate public-private cooperation and demonstrate in 2022 the scalability and cybersecurity of open, standards-based technology. With respect to the development of technical standards, we will establish sector-specific contact groups to promote an open, inclusive, private-sector-led, multi-stakeholder, and consensus-based approach. We will also coordinate and cooperate in multilateral standardization organizations such as the International Telecommunication Union. We are mapping the supply chain of critical technologies and materials, including semiconductors, and affirm our positive commitment to resilient, diverse, and secure supply chains of critical technologies, recognizing the importance of government support measures and policies that are transparent and market-oriented. We are monitoring trends in the critical and emerging technologies of the future, beginning with biotechnology, and identifying related opportunities for cooperation. We are also launching today Quad Principles on Technology Design, Development, Governance, and Use that we hope will guide not only the region but the world towards responsible, open, high-standards innovation.“ In: https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2021/09/24/joint-statement-from-quad-leaders/
  2. [2] Quad Principles on Technology Design, Development, Governance, and Use, 24. September 2021: „The Quad countries (Australia, India, Japan, and the United States of America) affirm that the ways in which technology is designed, developed, governed, and used should be shaped by our shared democratic values and respect for universal human rights. … We are committed to fostering an open, accessible, and secure technology ecosystem, based on mutual trust and confidence”, in: https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2021/09/24/quad-principles-on-technology-design-development-governance-and-use/
  3. [3] Quad Principles on Technology Design, Development, Governance, and Use, 24. September 2021: Artikel 1: „Support universal values: 1.1 We are committed to the development of critical and emerging technology that yields tangible benefits for society, developed through a multi-stakeholder approach that is adaptive, dynamic, and aligns with universal values, including respect for freedom of expression and privacy. 1.2 We support approaches to technological design, development, governance, and usage that promote our shared values, including the autonomy, agency, and dignity of individuals. 1.3. The design, development, governance, and use of technology should be an equitable and inclusive process that neither involves nor results in unfair discriminatory action. 1.4 Technology should not be misused or abused for malicious activities such as authoritarian surveillance and oppression, for terrorist purposes, or to disseminate disinformation.“ In: https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2021/09/24/quad-principles-on-technology-design-development-governance-and-use/
  4. [4] Quad Principles on Technology Design, Development, Governance, and Use, 24. September 2021: Artikel 2: „Build trust, integrity, and resilience. 2.1 Technology ecosystems built upon trust, integrity, and resilience foster innovation. 2.2.We support openness and interoperability to enable collaboration and to welcome innovators who are both diverse in their gender, race, and ethnicity, as well as in the size, structure, and age of their organizations. 2.3 We expect technology suppliers, vendors, and distributors to produce and maintain secure systems, and to be trustworthy, transparent, and accountable in their practices. Technology developers should also build in safety and security-by-design approaches so that robust safety and security practices are a part of the technology development process. Illicit transfer or theft of technology is a common challenge that undermines the very foundation of global technological development and should be addressed. 2.4 Resilient, diverse, and secure technology supply chains – for hardware, software, and services – are vital to our shared national interests. Close cooperation on supply chains with allies and partners who share our values will enhance our security and prosperity, and strengthen our capacity to respond to international disasters and emergencies.“ In: https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2021/09/24/quad-principles-on-technology-design-development-governance-and-use/
  5. [5] Quad Principles on Technology Design, Development, Governance, and Use, 24. September, 2021, Artikel 3: „Foster healthy competition and international collaboration to advance the frontier of science and technology. 3.1. A fair and open marketplace is a cornerstone of innovation and inclusive prosperity. 3.2. We support free and fair market competition in which the best technical solutions succeed, including with the help of transparently-awarded state incentives. 3.3 We encourage the development of competitive technology ecosystems that welcome new market entrants, including start-ups, and enhance innovation, resilience, and sustainability. 3.4 We recognize and affirm the importance of industry-led, consensus-based multi-stakeholder approaches to international standards development that foster interoperability, compatibility, and inclusiveness. 3.5 We are committed to reducing barriers to data and knowledge sharing for research projects and greater innovation, while protecting research security. 3.6 We are also committed to facilitating the exchange of researchers and movement of highly skilled personnel to enhance science and technology collaboration. 3.7 We are committed to developing shared research and development agendas, to include joint projects and joint capacity building where possible, that align with foundational scientific principles, further our common values, and promote workforce diversity and education. 3.8 Together, we will continue to keep pace with changes in the global economy and innovation processes by monitoring future trends and harnessing the opportunities to advance technologies to address many of our shared objectives: security and resilience, sustainability, economic inclusion, and health and wellbeing. 3.9 We are committed to fostering technology development that accelerates economic progress and serves the needs of all of our citizens.“ In: https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2021/09/24/quad-principles-on-technology-design-development-governance-and-use/