Q2/2020 - European Union, Brussels, April – June 2020

EU recovery instrument related to Covid-19 “Europe's Moment: Repair and Prepare for the Next Generation: A Deeper and More Digital Single Market”, Brussels, 27 May 2020

On 27 May 2020, the EU adopted its comprehensive recovery package to deal with the consequences of the Covid-19 crisis. In a communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the European Council, the Commission presents a 20-page program entitled “Europe's Moment: Repair and Prepare for the Next Generation”.

Paragraph 4.2 of the program comprises an extensive catalogue of measures for accelerated digitisation in Europe. The crisis is described as a unique opportunity for Europe to globally present itself as a secure and effective partner in a cyberspace based on the rule of law. In her speech on the recovery package, EU Commission President Ursula von der Leyen reaffirmed the concept of a “green and digital Europe”, as presented in her keynote speech on 17 February 2020. The new document states among other things: “This is Europe’s moment. Our willingness to act must live up to the challenges we are facing. National efforts alone will not be enough - Europe is in a unique position to be able to invest in a collective recovery and a better future for next generations. This is our defining generational task. The investment we make through Next Generation EU will not only help kick-start the economies and support workers, companies and regions today. It will invest in the future and make us more resilient so that we emerge stronger and further forward than before. We will accelerate the twin green and digital transition and make sure that people are at the heart of the recovery.”

The action plan comprises four concrete goals for a digital Europe:

  • Improving the communication infrastructure and a rapid rollout of 5G networks,
  • Strengthening the presence of European companies in strategic areas of the digital economy, in particular in the fields of artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, supercomputing and cloud services,
  • Development of a data economy as a motor for innovation and job creation,
  • Increasing cyber resilience in Europe[1].

The overall volume of the action plan is EUR 750 billion. Yet the plan does not specify how much of this is to be spent on the new and now expanded EU digital strategy. In a factsheet on the financing of the relevant measures, the EU Commission assumes that a large part of the funds must come from new sources of income that have not yet been tapped. For example, the Commission expects annual revenues of up to EUR 1.3 billion from the not yet decided digital tax[2].

Declaration on abuse in cyberspace for criminal activities during the Covid-19 pandemic, EU's High Representative Josep Borrell, Brussels 30 April 2020

On April 30, the EU's High Representative, Josep Borrell, issued a declaration on behalf of the European Union on criminal activities in cyberspace during the Covid-19 crisis. It says that the EU condemns any cyber attacks on critical infrastructure, including DDoS attacks, blackmail software, phishing activities or disinformation campaigns. Responsibility for finding problem solutions should rest with the two UN cyber security negotiation groups (UNGGE and OEWG[3]. On 14 May 2020, the EU extended its sanctions regime, introduced in May 2019, against states that have been proven to have engaged in criminal cyber-activities[4].

Establishment of EU Stakeholders Cybersecurity Certification Group (SCCG), Brussels, 22 June 2020

On 22 June 2020, EU Commissioner Thierry Breton announced the establishment of a new “Stakeholders Cybersecurity Certification Group” (SCCG) to advise the EU Commission and the European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA) on strategic issues related to certification and cyber security. The formation of the SCCG was agreed in the EU Cyber Security Directive of 2019. The envisaged European certification system is to increase trust and security in ICT products and services and prevent market fragmentation. Breton said at the inauguration of the group: “Not only will certification play a crucial role in increasing trust and security in ICT products, but it will also provide European companies with the necessary tools to demonstrate that their products and services have state of the art cybersecurity features. This will in turn allow them to better compete in the global market. The Stakeholder Cybersecurity Certification Group will help by bringing about the needed expertise and advice for the creation of a tailored and risk-based EU certification system.”[5].

The group has 50 members including Deutsche Telekom, Infineon, Robert Bosch GmbH, SAP, Thales, ETNO, BEUC, ETSI and ITU[6].

Public consultation on Digital Services Act, Brussels, 2 June 2020

On 2 June 2020, the European Commission launched a public consultation on the planned Digital Services Act. EU Commission President Ursula von der Leyen had announced the development of this new directive in her political guidelines of 19 February 2020. The Digital Services Act shall become the basic legal code for all digital services in Europe. The consultation seeks to gather input from all stakeholders, ranging from business, academics, civil society, online platforms and other interested parties. The consultation is open until 4 September 2020, and it is expected that the Digital Services Act will be adopted before 2021[7].

Foundation of a so-called European Digital Media Observatory“ (EDMO), Brussels, 1 June 2020

On 1 June 2020, the EU opened a new European Digital Media Observatory (EDMO). The Observatory is to deal above all with fake news, disinformation campaigns and hate speech on the Internet. EDMO is intended to bring together and support a multistakeholder and multidisciplinary community of fact-checkers, academic researchers, civil society groups and media literacy experts. The EDMO Consortium is led by the European University Institute in Florence (Italy). The EDMO Consortium includes the Athens Technology Center in Greece, the University of Aarhus in Denmark and the Italian fact-checking organisation Pagella Politica. In a second phase, following a call for proposals announced for this autumn, the network shall be further expanded[8]. EDNO is part of the EU Action Plan against disinformation adopted on 5 December 2018.

Public consultation on digitisation of cultural heritage, 22 June 2020

On 22 June 2020, the European Commission launched a public consultation on digital technology and cultural heritage. The EU had already adopted a recommendation on this subject in 2011. The fire at Notre Dame in Paris and the Covid-19 crisis have raised awareness of the need to digitise cultural heritage and make it accessible online worldwide. The EU Commission expects the consultation, which will run until 14 September 2020, to provide impetus on how the digitisation of Europe's cultural heritage can be made more effective and innovative[9].

High Level Internet Governance Working Group (HLIG), Brussels, 28 January 2020

On 12 June 2020, another meeting of the EU High Level Group on Internet Governance (HLIG) took place in form of a virtual meeting in the margins of the virtual EuroDIG[10]. Besides the EU's participation in EuroDIG, the planned EU Digital Services Act, the EU strategy for a digital Europe against the background of the Covid-19 crisis, the UN Roadmap for Digital Cooperation, the preparations for the virtual IGF by the Polish government, the upcoming 68th ICANN meeting and problems related to technical standards such as DoH and New IP were on the agenda. Pearse O'Donohue, Director of the Future Networks Unit in the DG CONNECT of the European Commission, who is also Chair of the HLIG, referred to EuroDIG as the central forum for discussing the European approach to the global Internet governance debate[11].

ENISA: Appointment of Ad-Hoc Cyber Security Working Group on Artificial Intelligence, 14 June 2020

On 10 June 2020, the new “Ad-Hoc Cyber Security Working Group on Artificial Intelligence” was appointed by the European Union Agency for Cyber Security (ENISA). The new group will help ENISA to explore the consequences that will result from the development of artificial intelligence for security in cyberspace and what new threats may arise for digital communication. The group will make recommendations to ENISA on what measures are needed to strengthen trust and security in cyberspace[12].The group has 15 members, including Sven Herpig from Stiftung Neue Verantwortung, a non-profit think tank working on current political and societal challenges posed by new technologies, and Christian Berghoff from the German Federal Office for Information Security. The mandate of the group is limited to an initial period of one year but can be extended. A first comprehensive report of the group is expected in 2021[13].

EU-Commissioner Thierry Breton on the Chinese proposal to introduce a new Internet protocol (New IP), 3 June 2020

At a question and answer session of the European Parliament on 3 June 2020, Thierry Breton, European Commissioner for digital policy, commented on the Chinese proposal to develop a new Internet Protocol (New IP) within the ITU. Breton rejected the argument that the existing Internet protocol TCP/IP is not sufficient to enable future 5G or 6G-based Internet services and that a new Internet protocol is therefore needed. He said that especially the Covid-19 crisis and the surge in the use of existing and new digital services triggered by it have proven the capacity of TCP/IP and that the protocol has “demonstrated a high level of resilience, scalability and adaptability, enabling the growth of the global Internet”. According to him, the EU Commission generally supports further improvements in Internet protocols. However, these should be materialised within the framework of the established Internet Standards Developing Organizations (SDOs) applying the principles of transparency, bottom-up and openness for all stakeholders. The EU, which is not formally a member of the ITU, recommends that its 27 member states position themselves accordingly at the upcoming World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly (WTSA). The European Commission stands for a single, unfragmented, open, neutral and free Internet, for permission-less innovation, privacy, the empowerment of Internet users and for respecting human rights in cyberspace[14].

Mehr zum Thema
  1. [1] COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS, Europe's moment: Repair and Prepare for the Next Generation {SWD(2020) 98 final}, 27 May 2020: „4.2 A deeper and more digital single market The pandemic and its consequences on our lives and economies have highlighted the importance of digitisation across all areas of EU economy and society. New technologies have kept our businesses and public services running, and made sure that trade could continue flowing. They have helped us all to stay connected, to work remotely and to support our children’s learning. In the long run, this is likely to trigger permanent and structural changes in societal and economic life: more teleworking, e-learning, e-commerce, e-government. This highlights the potential of developing a universally accepted e-ID - public electronic identity – to allow for simple, trusted and secure access to cross-border digital public services. Four elements will be key for a digital recovery, helping to stimulate competitive innovation and to provide users with greater choice. First, we will need to invest in more and better connectivity. The rapid deployment of 5G will have spill-over effects across the whole digital society and increase Europe’s strategic autonomy. This will support wider efforts to build infrastructure that can handle emerging and future processes and applications. It will also provide the necessary bandwidth for health, education, transport, logistics and media which are essential for our resilience, competitiveness and economic recovery. Second, we will need a stronger industrial and technological presence in strategic parts of the digital supply chain. Just as it became clear how important connectivity and digital technologies are, we are also reminded of the importance of security of technology. This reaffirms the need for Europe to have tech sovereignty where it matters, as well as keeping open trade and the flow of innovation going. In this spirit, recovery investment will be channeled towards strategic digital capacities and capabilities, including artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, secured communication, data and cloud infrastructure, 5G and 6G networks, supercomputers, quantum and blockchain. This will be a priority in the Recovery and Resilience Facility, InvestEU and the Strategic Investment Facility. The investment guidelines for the new Solvency Support Instrument will also reflect the need to prioritise digital investments. This will also help to bridge Europe’s digital divide, which has become even more apparent during the crisis. Third, we must build a real data economy as a motor for innovation and job creation. Data offers opportunities for businesses to develop products and services. To make the most of this, we need common European data spaces in key sectors and areas, including in support of European industry, the implementation of the European Green Deal, health, mobility and public administration. To bring this to life, the Commission will present legislative action on data sharing and governance to help put in place the right structures to handle data sharing across Member States and sectors, tackle barriers to digital trade and make Europe fit and able to compete in the 21st global economy. This will facilitate the setting up of common data spaces and strengthen governance on issues such as data portability or access. This will be followed by a Data Act, which will establish the conditions for better access and control of industrial data. The Commission will also propose to make high value government datasets available for the common good through more open access for research, innovation and SMEs. The fourth element is the need for a fairer and easier business environment, The extended lockdown boosted internet shopping and online business models. This trend will only accelerate in the months and years to come, with more companies switching to digital to do business. However, the online environment is currently dominated by a number of large platforms. Their position – and their greater access to key data resources – has an impact on the ability of smaller European companies to start up, scale up or make the most of the Single Market. These issues must be addressed if Europe is to make the most of the digital recovery. In this spirit, one of the aims of the new Digital Services Act will be to improve the legal framework for digital services, with clear rules for online platforms. It will offer greater security for consumers online, prevent the abuse of market power by platforms and ensure a fair market place with equal opportunities for smaller businesses. We must also focus on reducing administrative burden and making it easier for companies, especially SMEs, to use digital tools, such as e-signature. They need support to get easier access to data and reduce red tape through digital solutions, for example for contracts. The use of one-stop support shops and simplifying online administrative procedures should be encouraged. Digitisation of public procurement, including by developing national e-procurement systems and platforms, will be prioritised. This will be supported by the full implementation of the company law package to facilitate the digitisation and mobility of companies and of the single digital gateway. During the last weeks, we have also witnessed an extraordinary increase in malicious attacks from multiple sources, attempting to capitalise on the disruption caused by the pandemic for criminal or for geopolitical reasons. Improving the digital capabilities of law enforcement will preserve their ability to protect citizens effectively. The digitisation of justice systems can improve access to justice and the operation of the business environment. A new Cybersecurity Strategy will look at how to boost EU-level cooperation, knowledge and capacity. It will also help Europe strengthen its industrial capabilities and partnerships, and encourage the emergence of SMEs in the field. This will accompany the review of the Directive on security of network and information systems and a proposal for additional measures on Critical Infrastructure Protection. Together with the ongoing work on cybersecurity as part of the EU Security Union, this will increase capabilities within Member States and boost the EU’s overall cybersecurity. … As Europe sets off on its path to recovery towards a greener, digital and more resilient economy and society, the need to improve and adapt skills, knowledge and competences becomes all the more important. The crisis has also shown the importance of digital skills, for children, students, teachers, trainers and all of us to communicate and work. The Commission will come forward with a Skills Agenda for Europe and an updated Digital Education Action Plan., in: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1590732521013&uri=COM:2020:456:FIN
  2. [2] Financing the Recovery Plan for Europe, 27 May 2020, Revenue sources of the EU budget: Possible additional own resources to be added at a later stage of the 2021-2027 financial period: Punkt 4: Digital tax on companies with a global annual turnover of above €750 million to generate up to €1.3 billion per year.“
  3. [3] Declaration by the High Representative Josep Borrell, on behalf of the European Union, on malicious cyber activities exploiting the coronavirus pandemic, Ensuring cyber security in times of coronavirus: „As the coronavirus pandemic spreads around the world, the European Union and its Member States have observed cyber threats and malicious cyber activities targeting essential operators in Member States and their international partners, including in the healthcare sector. Since the beginning of the pandemic, significant phishing and malware distribution campaigns, scanning activities and distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks have been detected, some affecting critical infrastructures that are essential to managing this crisis. The European Union and its Member States condemn this malicious behaviour in cyberspace, express solidarity with all countries that are victims of malicious cyber activities and underline their continued support to increase global cyber resilience. Any attempt to hamper the ability of critical infrastructures is unacceptable. All perpetrators must immediately refrain from conducting such irresponsible and destabilising actions, which can put people’s lives at risk. We need the entire world to stand united in this global fight against the virus. It is a matter of humanity and universally shared values. The European Union and its Member States share a common vision of the cyber threats and are resolute to prevent, discourage, deter and respond to them, notably through the continued exchange of information and incident handling cooperation, as well as the use of their framework for a joint EU diplomatic response to malicious cyber activities. To this end, the European Union and its Member States will further reinforce their cooperation at technical, operational, judicial and diplomatic levels, including with their international partners. The European Union and its Member States call upon every country to exercise due diligence and take appropriate actions against actors conducting such activities from its territory, consistent with international law and the 2010, 2013 and 2015 consensus reports of the United Nations Groups of Governmental Experts (UNGGEs) in the field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security. The ongoing work of the sixth UNGGE and the UN Open-ended Working Group (OEWG) in the field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security is crucial to strengthening international cooperation towards a global, open, stable, peaceful and secure cyberspace where human rights, fundamental freedoms and the rule of law fully apply.“, in: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2020/04/30/declaration-by-the-high-representative-josep-borrell-on-behalf-of-the-european-union-on-malicious-cyber-activities-exploiting-the-coronavirus-pandemic/
  4. [4] Council extends cyber sanctions regime until 18 May 2021, 14 May 2020, „The Council today adopted a decision extending for one more year, until 18 May 2021, the restrictive measures framework against cyber-attacks which threaten the EU or its member states. The European Union will therefore keep its ability to impose targeted restrictive measures on persons or entities involved in cyber-attacks which cause a significant impact, and constitute an external threat to the EU or its member states. Restrictive measures can also be imposed in response to cyber-attacks against third states or international organisations where such measures are considered necessary to achieve the objectives of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The underlying purpose remains that of deterring and responding to cyber activities directed against the EU or its member states. Restrictive measures include a ban on persons travelling to the EU, and an asset freeze on persons and entities. In addition, EU persons and entities are forbidden from making funds available to those listed., in: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2020/05/14/cyber-security-council-extends-sanctions-regime-until-18-may-2021/
  5. [5] EU Cybersecurity: A newly-formed stakeholders group will work on the cybersecurity certification framework, Brussels 24 June 2020, in: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/eu-cybersecurity-newly-formed-stakeholders-group-will-work-cybersecurity-certification
  6. [6] Mitglieder der Gruppe sind: ACEA - European Automobile Manufacturers Association, ACI Europe, Airbus CyberSecurity SAS, ANEC, APPLiA - Home Appliance Europe, Association of TÜV testing, inspection, and certification bodies, BEUC - The European Consumer Organisation, BusinessEurope, COCIR, Deutsche Telekom AG, DIGITALEUROPE, ESMIG, ETNO - European Telecommunication Network Operators' Association, Eurelectric, European Banking Federation, European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation (CENELEC), European Committee for Standardisation (CEN), European co-operation for Accreditation (EA), European Cyber Security Organisation, European Data Protection Board (EDPB), European DIGITAL SME Alliance, European Semiconductor Industry Association, European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), Eurosmart, Fundación TECNALIA Research & Innovation, GSMA, Hermes Bay, IBERDROLA, Infineon Technologies AG, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), jtsec Beyond IT Security S.L., LEET Security LSTI, MedTech Europe, National Cybersecurity Competence Centre, OASIS, Orgalim, OVH, Philips, Politecnico di Milano, Polska Izba Informatyki i Telekomunikacji, RISE RESEARCH INSTITUTES OF SWEDEN AB, Robert Bosch GmbH, SAP, Schneider Electric, SGS, Thales, TIC Council, in: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/eu-cybersecurity-newly-formed-stakeholders-group-will-work-cybersecurity-certification
  7. [7] Commission launches consultation to seek views on Digital Services Act package, 2 June 2020, in: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/commission-launches-consultation-seek-views-digital-services-act-package
  8. [8] The European Digital Media Observatory project kicks off , 2 June 2020, „The European Digital Media Observatory aims to become the European hub to fight online disinformation. It will pool resources, provide tools and networking instruments, and create a safe harbour for data access to fact-checkers and researchers who work to debunk, expose, understand and analyse disinformation activities, trends and techniques online ….The creation of the Observatory is one of the elements in the Commission’s detailed Action Plan against disinformation, published on 5 December 2018. The plan aims to reinforce capabilities and strengthen cooperation between Member States and the EU in four key areas: improving detection, coordinating responses, working with online platforms and industry, raising awareness and empower citizens to respond to disinformation online.“ in: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/european-digital-media-observatory-project-kicks
  9. [9] Commission launches public consultation on digital access to European cultural heritage, 22 June 2020, in: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/commission-launches-public-consultation-digital-access-european-cultural-heritage
  10. [10] See: High Level Group on Internet Governance (E02450), CNECT - DG Communications Networks, Content and Technology, Brussels In: https://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regexpert/index.cfm?do=groupDetail.groupDetail&groupID=2450
  11. [11] Pearse O'Donohue, Messages from EuroDIG - the European Dialogue on Internet Governance, Brüssel, 23 June 2020, „A plenary session on Digital Sovereignty that the Commission had co-organised with other stakeholders was in the agenda of the event. Digital Sovereignty will be one of the main priorities in the digital and technological portfolios of the coming years. There we stressed how digital sovereignty has a twofold and complementary meaning: on one side the users’ control over their personal data and activities online, in full respect of the democratic principles that the EU holds dear; and on the other side research and innovation investments and policies that will ensure strategic autonomy for Europe in the technological supply chain. These ambitious goals cannot be reached in isolation, but only through effective cooperation with other actors. This is why the Commission strongly supports the effort of the UN Secretary General Guterres and his UN High-Level Panel on Digital Cooperation initiative. After two years of broad consultations, the UN Secretary General last week published a Roadmap containing concrete recommendations on how to strengthen Global Digital Cooperation, and it is not a coincidence that one of the main chapters of the Roadmap focuses on the reform of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) and the role of its national and regional instances. These recommendations are in tune with what the Commission has put forward on the reform of the IGF, and we will certainly expect the European stakeholder community to play a central role on this in the coming months… The discussions and interventions were meaningful and the dialogues among the different stakeholders conveyed different and sometimes controversial perspectives, in line with the spirit of EuroDIG. In the coming years, we will need to ensure that this spirit is maintained, while focusing our efforts on broadening citizens’ participation. Part of the added value of EuroDIG is, in fact, that it allows us to convey simple messages on a range of issues that have, and will have even more in the future, a high impact on the European citizens daily life. In this way, EuroDIG can become an essential platform for Europe’s future role in the Global Digital Cooperation and in internet governance. Let’s work together for an even better EuroDIG!“ in: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/blogposts/messages-eurodig-european-dialogue-internet-governance
  12. [12] ENISA working group on Artificial Intelligence cybersecurity kick-off, 10 June 2020, „Atificial Intelligence (AI) is no longer in the realm of science fiction and futuristic scenarios. It is already changing everyday life, improving the provision of services by automating procedures and systems, and rapidly processing large amounts of data. AI has the potential to lead the digital transformation paradigm shift, and, in many ways, is already doing so.The benefits of Artificial Intelligence may only be attained if AI itself can be trustworthy and cybersecure. We are already witnessing attacks against AI systems that aim to negatively manipulate their behaviour and lead to unintentional operations by adversaries. The European Commission has highlighted the importance of AI in society and the economy; and, most recently, in its White Paper on Artificial Intelligence, the Commission has underlined the need for AI to be secure. This white paper is the frontrunner to forthcoming policy initiatives in the area that will shape the future of AI deployment and its wide adoption by the public. Recognizing the significance of cybersecurity for Artificial Intelligence, ENISA has set up an Ad-Hoc Working Group in line with the European Commission’s directions and policies.“, in: https://www.enisa.europa.eu/news/enisa-news/enisa-working-group-on-artificial-intelligence-cybersecurity-kick-off
  13. [13] Members are: Caroline Baylon, AXA, Christian Berghoff, Bundesagentur für Informationssicherheit (BSI), Stephan Brunessaux, Airbus, Luis Burdalo S2 Grupo, Giuseppe Dacquisto, Italienische Datenschutzbehörde, Ernesto Damiani, Universität Mailand, Sven Herpig, Stiftung Neue Verantwortung, Caroline Louveaux, Mastercard, Jochen Mistiaen, DigitalEurope, Duy Cu Nguyen, Post Luxemburg, Nineta Polemi, Universität Piräus. Isabel Praca. Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto (ISEP), George Sharkov Ministerium für Verteidigung Bulgarien und European Software Institute CEE, Vincent Slieker, National Cyber Security Center, Niederlande, Ewelina Szczekocka, Orange Polska SA, siehe: https://www.enisa.europa.eu/topics/iot-and-smart-infrastructures/artificial_intelligence/adhoc_wg_calls
  14. [14] Thierry Breton, European Parliament, 3 June 2020, Question reference: E-002042/2020: „The Commission is aware of the proposal on a ‘New IP, Shaping Future Networks’ put forward by Huawei in the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). The proposal asserts that the current Internet protocol is unsuitable for the development of new digital applications and that this calls for the development of a new protocol. The Commission notes that the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) has demonstrated a high level of resilience, scalability and adaptability, enabling the growth of the global Internet to date. Its resilience and adaptability have been tested during the COVID-19 crisis. The Commission acknowledges the need for the continuous improvement of the Internet protocols, but considers that this should take place primarily in the relevant Internet standards bodies, based on a decision-making process that is transparent, bottom-up and open to all stakeholders. The EU, represented by the Commission, is a sector member of the ITU, while the 27 EU Member States are full members. The Commission is considering to propose a EU position on key issues at the forthcoming World Telecommunication Standardisation Assembly (WTSA) taking place in India in November 2020, including on the one subject to this written question. In the ITU like in other Internet governance bodies, the Commission, representing the Union, defends the vision of a single, open, neutral, free and un-fragmented Internet, supporting permission-less innovation, privacy and users’ empowerment, as well as the protection of all fundamental rights online or offline.“ In: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/E-9-2020-002042-ASW_EN.html; siehe auch New Zealand Herald, 18 June 2020, EU hits out at China's bid to rewrite rules of the internet, in: https://www.nzherald.co.nz/business/news/article.cfm?c_id=3&objectid=12338972