Q2/2019 - Französische G7-Präsidentschaft

Q2/2019 - Französische G7-Präsidentschaft

G7-Außenminister, Saint Malo, 5. - 6. April 2019

Beim Treffen der G7-Außenminister in Saint Malo am 6. April 2019 wurde eine Erklärung über eine G7-Cybernorm-Initiative (CNI/Dinard Declaration on the Cyber Norm Initiative) angenommen. Die CNI zielt auf einen besseren Austausch von Erfahrungen (best practice and lessons learned) beim Umgang mit den Empfehlungen zu einem auf der UN-Charta basierten normgerechten Verhalten von Staaten im Cyberspace sowie entsprechenden vertrauensbildenden Maßnahmen  wie sie u.a. in den Berichten der UN GGEs von 2010, 2013 und 2015 enthalten sind. Damit soll auch eine koordinierte Vorbereitung für die im September 2019 beginnenden Verhandlungen zu Cybersicherheit in den beiden neuen UN-Arbeitsgruppen (OEWG & GGE) optimiert werden.

Die CNI enthält vier Elemente:

  • besserer Informationsaustausch und Stärkung des Verständnisses der Rolle von freiwilligen, nicht-bindenden Nomen über verantwortungsvolles Verhalten von Staaten im Cyberspace;
  • Austausch von Erfahrungen (Best Practice & Lessons Learned) mit Staaten, die nicht Mitglieder der G7 sind;
  • eine erweiterte Zusammenarbeit zu vertrauensbildenden Maßnahmen im Cyberspace (CBMCs) und
  • Förderung des Aufbaus von Fähigkeiten zur Umsetzung der vereinbarten Normen und CBMCs[1]

Beim Treffen der G7-Innenminister in Paris am 5. April 2019 wurde im Lichte der Terrorattacke in Christchurch ein G7-Dokument unter dem Titel „Combating the Use of the Internet for Terrorist and Violent Extremist Purposes“ mit insgesamt 16 Leitlinien zu einer Unterbindung des Missbrauchs des Internets für Terrorismus und Gewaltpropaganda angenommen.[2]

Das Dokument bekräftigt die Notwendigkeit einer engeren Kooperation zwischen Regierungen und Online-Plattformen. Dort, wo freiwillige Verpflichtungen zu keinem zufriedenstellenden Ergebnis bei der Entfernung von terroristischen Inhalten führen würde, seien gesetzgeberische Maßnahmen der G7-Länder erforderlich. Bekräftigt wurde der Entscheid der G7-Konferenz von Toronto (2018), das „Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism“ (GIFCT) als die globale Schaltstelle weiter auszubauen. Aufmerksamkeit wurde auf den Fakt gelenkt, dass die Kooperationsbereitschaft der großen Online-Plattformen gewachsen ist, dass aber kleine Online-Plattformen häufig überfordert sind, die entsprechenden Beschlüsse umzusetzen.

Beklagt wurde, dass Strafverfolgungsbehörden in vielen Fällen auf Hindernisse stoßen würden bei ihren Ermittlungen, da sie nicht ungehindert Zugang zu Daten bekommen würden, insbesondere zu verschlüsselter elektronischer Kommunikation. Der Zugang zu diesen Daten für Strafverfolgungsbehörden im Interesse erfolgreicher Ermittlungen gegen Terroristen müsste ausgeweitet werden, wobei darauf verwiesen wird, dass dies im Rahmen der Beachtung der universellen Menschenrechte geschehen müsse.[3]

Mehr zum Thema
  1. [1] Dinard Declaration on the Cyber Norm Initiative, Saint Malo, France, April 6, 2019: „As our societies become increasingly digitalized, reinforcing trust, security and stability in cyberspace is critical in order to ensure that all actors can fully enjoy its benefits. We remain committed to promoting an open, secure, stable, accessible and peaceful cyberspace for all, where the application of international law and fundamental freedoms are promoted and human rights are protected online. In this context, we recall with appreciation that the General Assembly has affirmed that international law, and in particular the Charter of the United Nations, is applicable and is essential to maintaining peace and stability and promoting an open, secure, stable, accessible and peaceful Information and Communications Technology (ICT) environment. We also recall the conclusions of the 2010, 2013 and 2015 reports of the Groups of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security, transmitted by the UN Secretary General and consensually endorsed by the UN General Assembly, which called on all states to be guided in their use of ICTs by these reports. These reports notably stressed that rules, principles and voluntary and non-binding norms of responsible behavior of States in the use of ICTs can reduce risks to international peace, security and stability and that confidence-building measures strengthen international peace and security and can increase inter-state cooperation, transparency, predictability and stability. We affirm our willingness to establish a Cyber Norm Initiative (CNI) dedicated to sharing best practices and lessons learned on the implementation of previously recognized voluntary, non-binding norms of responsible State behavior. We encourage, where possible, other interested partners to join us in this endeavor or to complete a similar exercise. This would contribute to the work by the UN Open-ended Working Group and Group of Governmental Experts, and by regional organizations, and would aim to demonstrate strong examples of adherence to these norms. As participants in the Cyber Norm Initiative we commit to: 1. Encourage better and increased voluntary exchange of information, among ourselves and with others, on the steps taken by our respective states to understand and effectively implement the voluntary, non-binding norms of responsible state behavior in cyberspace and the recommendations contained in the abovementioned reports 2. Share the best practices and lessons learned that will be identified as a result of this process with a wide range of states and other stakeholders; 3. Engage with other states to include them in our peer-learning, cooperative, transparency and confidence-building efforts; 4. Cooperate to help build our partners' capability to implement the above-mentioned voluntary, non-binding norms and recommendations.“ Siehe: http://www.g7.utoronto.ca/foreign/190406-cyber.html
  2. [2] G7-OUTCOME DOCUMENT COMBATING THE USE OF THE INTERNET FOR TERRORIST AND VIOLENT EXTREMIST PURPOSES, Paris, 5. April 2019: „ Thus, the G7 Ministers of Interior commit to implementing the following: 1. Call on Internet companies to improve communication and transparency around their efforts to prevent and counter the use of the internet for violent extremist and terrorist purposes, both with our governments and citizens; 2. Reiterating the G7 Toronto Commitment, call on Internet companies to continue to more swiftly identify and remove all terrorist and violent extremist content within one hour of upload, as technically feasible without compromising accuracy, and to assess as a matter of priority notices from trusted flaggers and provide feedback on action taken through the development and responsible use of relevant technological means and the allocation of a dedicated workforce; 3. Request that Internet companies establish protocols in emergency situations to remove violent extremist and terrorist content, inclusive of safeguards to protect legitimate news reporting; 4. Request the Internet companies to continue to take proactive measures to protect their services against the uploading of terrorist and violent extremist content, and furthermore swiftly identify and establish procedures to ensure the removal of violent extremist and terrorist content, with the possibility to law enforcement services to get access to this content if needed, and prevent its reappearance online and dissemination across platforms, including through consistent expansion and use of the GIFCT’s shared database of hashes; 5. Encourage the major Internet companies to continue to support small platforms abilities to identify and to remove online violent extremist and terrorist content, by making technical means available and facilitating their access to the GIFCT’s shared data base of hashes, in particular through increased support to “Tech Against Terrorism” affiliated with the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate of the United Nations and non-governmental organisations; 6. Promote further Internet companies’ support of relevant stakeholders, including researchers and academics in G7 countries, to better understand how to prevent and counter the use of the Internet for violent extremist and terrorist purposes, in particular through sharing of data, in accordance with the applicable data protection laws and regulations; 7. Encourage Internet companies to have appropriate safeguards in place to prevent the erroneous removal of online content, taking into account the fundamental importance of the freedom of expression and access to information in an open and democratic society; 8. reiterate the G7 Toronto commitment to encourage Internet companies to include in their Terms of Service information on the consequences, under the applicable national law, of sharing violent extremist and terrorist content and clearly outline the process of reporting such content to all users; 9. Build digital and media resilience through education, training initiatives, which empower people to think critically and identify misleading information, including through collaboration with civil society organisations; 10. Furthermore some G7 countries may choose to adopt national or regional legislation to impose the removal of online violent extremist and terrorist content to Internet companies within the hour following a removal order and endeavour to appoint a legal representative in each of the States they are based in, as well as a 24/7 operational contact point; 11. Urge Internet companies to continue to create tools to address algorithmic confinement regarding violent extremist and terrorist content, notably by promoting positive alternative and counter-narratives developed by relevant stakeholders, including civil society; 12. Encourage Internet companies to establish lawful access solutions for their products and services, including data that is encrypted, for law enforcement and competent authorities to access digital evidence, including when it is removed or hosted on IT servers located abroad or encrypted, without imposing any particular technology and while ensuring that assistance requested from internet companies is underpinned by the rule of law and due process protection. Some G7 countries highlight the importance of not prohibiting, limiting or weakening encryption; 13. Continue to jointly explore with Internet companies the means to allow access of law enforcement services to removed terrorist content in order to ensure consistent and systematic exploitation of such content to identify, locate and pursue perpetrators portrayed in terrorist materials, as well as to facilitate forensic data analysis, in a manner that complies with applicable law; 14. Consider taking the necessary measures to ensure that Internet companies address production orders sent by law enforcement and competent authorities, when it is appropriate; Some G7 countries may choose to establish legal frameworks at national, regional, and international scale 15. Explore opportunities for enhanced legal cooperation to address the evolution of cloud storage, through consideration of a Second Additional Protocol to the Budapest Convention on Cybercrime; 16. Implement the aforementioned commitments in full compliance with human rights obligations, including those relating to freedom of expression, privacy and due process. Siehe: http://www.g7.utoronto.ca/justice/index.html
  3. [3] G7-OUTCOME DOCUMENT COMBATING THE USE OF THE INTERNET FOR TERRORIST AND VIOLENT EXTREMIST PURPOSES, Paris, 5. April 2019: In addition, in some cases, investigation and prosecution services still encounter challenges in accessing the digital evidence needed for counter-terrorism investigations. Indeed, search warrants for digital evidence are often not able to be executed because of the difficulties for law enforcement services to get lawful access to data, in particular to encrypted electronic communications., Faster access to this digital evidence, pursuant to lawful authority and with respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, is important for investigation and prosecution services to fulfil their mandates and to ensure the effectiveness of investigations. A key consideration is to ensure that law applies online. Proposals in this area must nevertheless enable society to continue to access and maintain confidence in the many benefits of encryption.“ Siehe: http://www.g7.utoronto.ca/justice/index.html